How to study Chemical Engineering during B.Tech for GATE Exam

The students studying Chemical Engineering in B.Tech, who wants to do Reasearch in future or Clear GATE Exam with better score, they should keep the following points in mind during B.Tech.

  • First you must study the following subjects in your whole B.Tech at your best:
    • Material Balance and Energy Balance
    • Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
    • Fluid Mechanics
    • Chemical Reaction Engineering
    • Mass Transfer
    • Heat Transfer
  • You must study the best available books for the above subjects:
    • For Material Balance and Energy Balance:
      • Basic Principles and Calculations in Chemical Engineering ~ by David Mautner Himmelblau
    • For Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
      • Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach ~ by Michael A. Boles and Yunus A. Cengel
      • Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics ~ by J. M. Smith
    • For Fluid Mechanics
      • Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications ~ by John Cimbala and Yunus A. Cengel
      • Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering ~ by Warren McCabe (Author), Julian Smith (Author), Peter Harriott (Author)
    • For Chemical Reaction Engineering
      • Chemical Reaction Engineering ~ by Octave Levenspiel
      • Elements Of Chemical Reaction Engineering ~ by H. Scott Fogler
    • For Mass Transfer
      • Mass-transfer operations ~ by Robert Ewald Treybal
      • Principles of Mass Transfer and Separation Processes ~ by Binay K. Dutta
    • For Heat Transfer
      • Heat Transfer ~ by Yunus A. Cengel
      • Heat Transfer ~ by J. P. Holman
  • You must study the books very well and understand the concepts such that you must be able to correlate those concepts in your daily life:
    • For example When water is passed through the charcoal than its temperature decreases Why?

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What is Civil Engineering?

Civil engineering is arguably the oldest engineering discipline. It deals with the built environment and can be dated to the first time someone placed a roof over his or her head or laid a tree trunk across a river to make it easier to get across.

The built environment encompasses much of what defines modern civilization. Buildings and bridges are often the first constructions that come to mind, as they are the most conspicuous creations of structural engineering, one of civil engineering’s major sub-disciplines. Roads, railroads, subway systems, and airports are designed by transportation engineers, another category of civil engineering. And then there are the less visible creations of civil engineers. Every time you open a water faucet, you expect water to come out, without thinking that civil engineers made it possible. New York City has one of the world’s most impressive water supply systems, receiving billions of gallons of high-quality water from the Catskills over one hundred miles away. Similarly, not many people seem to worry about what happens to the water after it has served its purposes. The old civil engineering discipline of sanitary engineering has evolved into modern environmental engineering of such significance that most academic departments have changed their names to civil and environmental engineering.

These few examples illustrate that civil engineers do a lot more than design buildings and bridges. They can be found in the aerospace industry, designing jetliners and space stations; in the automotive industry, perfecting the load-carrying capacity of a chassis and improving the crashworthiness of bumpers and doors; and they can be found in the ship building industry, the power industry, and many other industries wherever constructed facilities are involved. And they plan and oversee the construction of these facilities as construction managers.

Civil engineering is an exciting profession because at the end of the day you can see the results of your work, whether this is a completed bridge, a high-rise building, a subway station, or a hydroelectric dam.

Please look at the Web pages of our individual faculty members to learn more about their special interests as examples of what civil engineering and engineering mechanics is and can be about.

What is Instrumentation Engineering?

In scientific terms, instrumentation is defined as the art and science of measurement and control of process variables within a production, or manufacturing area. The science has further opened up the realm of instrumentation engineering.

The discipline of instrumentation engineering branched out of the streams of electrical and electronic engineering some time in the early part of 1970s. “It is a multi-disciplinary stream and covers subjects from various branches such as chemical, mechanical, electrical, electronics and computers,” says Prof. A. Bhujanga Rao, from the department of Instrumentation Engineering, Andhra University.

The professor adds that instrumentation engineering is a specialised branch of electrical and electronic engineering and it deals with measurement, control and automation of processes.


Almost all process and manufacturing industry such as steel, oil, petrochemical, power and defence production will have a separate instrumentation department, which is manned and managed by instrumentation engineers. “Automation is the buzz word in process industry, and automation is the core job of instrumentation engineers. Hence, the demand for instrumentation will always be there,” says the professor.

The growth in the avionics, aeronautical and space science sectors has also increased the scope for instrumentation engineers. Instrumentation engineers can also fit in both software and hardware sectors.

Apart from covering core subjects such as system dynamics, industrial instrumentation and process control, analytical and bio-medical instrumentation and robotics, the students deal with software and hardware topics such as microprocessor and micro controller based instrumentation, VLSI and embedded system designs, computer architecture and organisation and computer control of processes. Computer languages such as ‘C’ and Fortran are also part of the curriculum. This makes an instrumentation engineer fit for both the hardware and the software industry. Moreover, since instrumentation engineers are presumed to be good in physics, the logical ability is expected to be on the higher side, which is a basic quality needed to excel in the software industry.

The demand is so high that every student finds at least two jobs waiting in the wings, by the time he or she completes her course, says Dr. Bhujanga Rao.

Nature of work of an instrumentation engineer ranges from designing, developing, installing, managing equipments that are used to monitor and control machinery and processes.

“Though there is a demand for instrumentation engineers from the software sector, we prefer the core area, as that is where we can showcase our creativity and knowledge,” says Srinivas a third-year student.

The shift towards core sector is not only due to the opportunity to showcase ones creative talent and knowledge, but also because of the long term stability and quick growth. Bio-medical is another area that is fast catching up and there is huge requirement for instrumentation professionals.

Instrumentation engineering that made its way as an exclusive engineering discipline in the early part of 1970s was earlier known as M.Sc. Tech Instrumentation in many of the colleges. It was then a three-year PG course. Even today, it is referred to by different names by various colleges. While some call it as B. Tech- electronics and instrumentation, a few name it as B. Tech – control and instrumentation. Whatever, be the name, the curriculum is the same.

All about GATE 2017

What is GATE?

  • The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an all-India examination administered and conducted in eight zones across the country by the GATE 2017 Committee comprising faculty from Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and seven Indian Institutes of Technology on behalf of the National Coordinating Board – GATE, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development (MoHRD), and Government of India.

#GATE 2017 Test Conduction

  • GATE is generally conducted on the second Sunday of February every year and the results announced in the middle of March.

How to apply for @GATE?

  • There is only one way by which candidates can apply for GATE 2017 examination – Online.

@GATE 2017 Examination Structure

A candidate can apply for only ONE of the 21 papers

  • The candidate is expected to appear in a paper appropriate to the discipline of his/her qualifying degree.
  • The candidate is; however, free to choose any paper according to his/her admission plan, keeping in mind the eligibility criteria of the institutions in which he/she wishes to seek admission.

About #Gate 2017

Pattern of Question Papers and Marking Scheme

  • The examination will be carried out ONLINE.
  • For all  papers, the candidates will have to mark the correct choice on an Optical Response Sheet (ORS) by darkening the appropriate bubble against each question.
  • In the ONLINE papers, the question paper will consist of questions of multiple choice type and numerical answer type. For multiple choice type questions, each question will have four choices for the answer. For numerical answer type questions, each question will have a number as the answer and choices will not be given.

@GATE 2017 would contain questions of four different types in various papers:

  • Multiple choice questions carrying 1 or 2 marks each.
  • Common data questions, where two successive questions use the same set of input data.
  • Linked answer questions, where the answer to the first question of the pair is required in order to answer its successor.
  • Numerical answer questions, where the answer is a number, to be entered by the candidate.
  • Examples of such questions can be found in Question Types.

In all the papers, there will be a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks, out of which 10 questions carrying 15 marks in General Aptitude (GA) are compulsory.

  • In the papers bearing the codes AE, AG, BT, CE, CH, CS, EC, EE, GG, IN, ME, MN, MT, PI, TF and XE, the Engineering Mathematics will carry 15 % of the total marks, the General Aptitude section will carry 15 % of the total marks and the remaining 70 % of the total marks is devoted to the subject of the paper.
  • In the papers bearing the codes AR, CY, GG, MA, PH and XL, the General Aptitude section will carry 15 % of the total marks and the remaining 85 % of the total marks is devoted to the subject of the paper.

About Gate 2017


33 % of Negative marking in applicable. Eg: 1 mark MCQ-1/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer. Similarly for 2 marks multiple choice questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for a wrong answer.

How GATE 2017 score is calculated?

GATE Score  = 

Expansion of equation:

ag = Global average of marks of all candidates who appeared across all papers and years

sg = global standard deviation of marks of all candidates who appeared across all papers and years

m = marks obtained by the candidate.

a = average of marks of all candidates who appeared in the paper mentioned on this scorecard in GATE

s = standard deviation of marks of all candidates who appeared in the paper mentioned on this scorecard in GATE

The maximum score can be attained is 1000.

  • The evaluation of the ORS is carried out by a computerized process using scanning machines, with utmost care. Requests for revaluation of the answer script and re-totaling of marks will not be entertained.
  • GATE 2017 score card is valid for three years.


About Gate 2017


GATE 2017 Eligibility

  • Bachelor’s degree holders in Engineering/Technology/ Architecture (4 years after 10+2) and those who are in the final year of such programs.
  • Bachelor’s degree holders in Engineering/Technology/Architecture (Post-B.Sc./Post-Diploma) and those who are in the final year of such programs.
  • Master’s degree holders in any branch of Science/Mathematics/ Statistics/Computer Applications or equivalent and those who are in the final year of such programs.
  • Candidates in the second or higher year of the Four-year Integrated Master’s degree program (Post-B.Sc.) in Engineering/Technology.
  • Candidates in the fourth or higher year of Five-year Integrated Master’s degree program or Dual Degree program in Engineering/Technology.
  • Candidates with qualifications obtained through examinations conducted by professional societies recognized by UPSC/AICTE (e.g. AMIE by Institute of Engineers (India); AMICE by Institute of Civil Engineers (India)) as equivalent to B.E./B.Tech. Those who have completed section A or equivalent of such professional courses are also eligible.

Advantages of Gate 2017


PSU/ Government Jobs – Direct calls

  • NTPC, BHEL, BARC, IOCL, Power Grid calls for interview based on GATE 2017 score, In future most of the PSUs companies will consider GATE score for recruitment

Government Sector Jobs entrance exams

  • DRDO, ONGC, SAIL, BSNL-JTO, HAL, NAL, HPCL etc – more than 10,000 vacancies, Syllabus is subset of GATE 2017 syllabus. Hence GATE 2017 preparation enough to crack these exams. Research based jobs- DRDO, Job stability & high paying salary – E.g… 7 lacs per annum – IOCL (Employment News is the source of information )

Private Sectors Jobs – Interview

  • GATE score helps students during campus placement. More no. of GATE qualifiers establishes.

MBA: Admission in NITIE, Mumbai

  • Industrial Engineering program in top 10 institute of the countryAdmissions to IIMs: Fellow ship program
  • Fellowship program is equivalent PhD. Stipend: 22000/- per month Study Abroad: Singapore, Germany & New Zealand
  • NUS, NTU Singapore accepts GATE 2017 score

Better Academic Results

  • Pre-final / final year students

Advantage of GATE 2017

Mandatory for self-financing students

  • Students with GATE 2017score are preferred as they create funds for Private colleges.

Project Assistance ship at NTs /HSc and NITs

  • Students with lower GATE 2017 score but have zeal to do research get opportunity in labs of Premier institutes. Students can get into MS course from Assistance ship

Higher Technical Education- ME, MTech, MS & PhD

  • HSc, HTs, NITs, Central University, Govt. Colleges, Private colleges more than 10,000 seats,
  • Stipend 8000/- per month (Masters) & 16000/- per month (PhD)

Other PG Entrance Exams in India

Name of the Exam Type of Exam Syllabus Examination Dates No. of Seats
GATE- National Level Exam Objective-MCQ (negative marking) Standard University Syllabus + General Aptitude February >9,000
State Level Exam Objective-MCQ (no negative marking) Same as GATE June-July >2000
University PG entrance Objective- MCQ Same as GATE June – July >1500
HSc. Entrance Exams Objective + Subjective Same as GATE May-June >200
HTs Entrance Exams Objective + Subjective Same as GATE May-June >1000


Guidelines For Gate

  • In GATE, candidates need to register and fill the application ONLINE only by accessing the GATE websites

of HSc and seven NTs. (Refer Counselor Guide of complete info)

Pre-final Year Students

  • Pre-final year students are not eligible to write GATE 2017. Admit Card
  • Admit card can be downloaded ONLY from the zonal GATE 2017 websites.
  • Candidates will not be permitted to take the test if original and valid photo identification is not presented.



Can you list the zones of the prestigious IIT institutes?

  • GATE2017  is conducted through the constitution of eight zones. The zones and the corresponding administrative institutes are:
  • Zone 1 – Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
  • Zone 2 – Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
  • Zone 3 – Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
  • Zone 4 – Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
  • Zone 5 – Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
  • Zone 6 – Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
  • Zone 7 – Indian Institute of Technology Madras
  • Zone 8 – Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee


How many times can I attempt GATE?

  • Number of attempts is not restricted. The best of the valid GATE 2017 score is accepted which we provide in application form. The GATE 2017 score is valid for 3 years.

Is there age limit for taking GATE 2017 examination?

  • There is no age limit.

Eligibility in terms of percentage marks to take up the GATE 2017 examination?

  • The candidate should have a PASS certificate from a recognized university.

What is the time required to prepare for GATE 2017 examination?

You can spend 6-12 months to prepare for GATE


Can you provide the Engineering Colleges admission procedures?

  • There are around 300 colleges and therefore cutoffs are not often revealed by institutes. You can refer to Post gate 2017 admission guide which lists cutoffs for various lISc, IITs and NITs time to time.


What is the placement scenario and how much they do the companies offer?

  • This is a dynamic kind of information that varies with stream, specialization, the institute and the industry with every particular year.


What are the options for a Mechanical Engineering student to o for software specialization of any related subject?

  • Post gate admission guide will give you a better idea of what branches are interdisciplinary. However, the details vary from institute to institute. In general if you are changing branches, your admission will be possible in interdisciplinary specializations only.


Which I IT is conducting GATE 2017 this year?

  • It varies from year to year. GATE 2017 was conducted by IISc banglore.


Can a person holding MBA in [Information Systems] be eligible to GATE?

  • The basic requirement for GATE is an Engineering degree or MSc. If the person has an engineering degree, he can give the exam, otherwise not possible If a candidate appears for GATE twice which score will be considered?
  • The higher score you have secured of the two will be considered automatically once you fill-up the form. Can you tell us the Fee and stipend details of various institutes?
  • Fees – Rs. 25,000 to 52,000 per annum.
  • Stipend – Rs. 12400/- per month (Masters) & 20000/- per month (PhD). Admission brochure can be referred for more details of the particular institute. Give us the details of reservation in various institutes?
  • All reservations will be considered as mandatory by the law. Can you tell us the typical Cut-off Marks?
  • The following can be considered as tentative cut-off marks:

Above 55-IITs, IISc

Above 50-NITs

Above 50-PSU calls

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